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The manufacture of some paper-based products may require automated folding to create the finished product. This usually involves pre-sized sheets of paper being subjected to mechanical folding in a continuous, high-speed process.

Paper is cut to the required size and shape, and undergoes any relevant surface treatment, before being transferred to the folding machine. Folding is accomplished by either buckle folding (forcing the paper to bend through compression), knife folding (striking the paper with a blade), or a combination of the two.

Any surface defects are likely to be caused by the folding machine itself, so this is where monitoring should be focused. Defects may cause substandard product, but could also halt the folding process, so accurate inspection is important.
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