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Lamination involves the permanent bonding of two or more sheet materials. Laminated nonwovens are commonly used to create waterproof and breathable protective clothing, and can be used to control porosity in filtration applications. Defects in any of the layers can significantly impact upon performance.

Depending on the materials used, an adhesive may be used to bond the layers. Heat and pressure are also commonly applied to promote adhesion. These process steps may affect the material surface, so accurate monitoring is important to ensure consistent quality and performance.

Since the laminate is made up of separate but bonded layers, flaws in a single layer can detrimentally affect the overall product. Inspection throughout the process is important, to detect existing defects and to monitor the material for any problems introduced during the lamination process.
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